Deliverable D2.1 – Concept of Operation

The ConOps describes the novel concept for integrated GNSS RFI (both jamming and spoofing) air navigation threats management, based on equipment installed on-board the aircraft. The purpose is to detect and localize GNSS interferences (jamming and/or spoofing) as soon as the aircraft is affected.



The new concept of interference threat management on-board the aircraft is based on the following assumptions:

  • On the aircraft. Reuse the GNSS antennas used for navigation:
    1. Omnidirectional GNSS antennas. COTS GNSS antennas used in aviation are omnidirectional (uniform radiation diagram). Flight inspection aircrafts are equipped with directional antennas to localize the interferences. These antennas are not used for navigation, and therefore require a significant extra-cost.
    2. GNSS antennas on top of the fuselage. Flight inspection aircrafts are equipped with antennas on the bottom of the fuselage to localize the interferences. These antennas are not used for navigation, and therefore require a significant extra-cost.
  • On the interference source.
    1.  Source on-ground. Ground-based jammers/spoofers.
    2. Static or quasi-static. Negligible speed of the source with respect to the aircraft.


 Modes of Operation

Description of how the integrated GNSS RFI threats management system could be applied:

  • Detection & Autonomous Localization (D&AL)

The aircraft is autonomous and relies only on the data recorded on-board to localize the interference source. The aircraft is continuously monitoring the presence of interferences (jamming and/or spoofing). When an interference is detected, the aircraft automatically tries to localize the source. As soon as the aircraft has estimated a ‘reliable’ position of the interference source, the ATC is alerted with the position of the source.



  • Detection & Collaborative Localization (D&CL)

Multiple aircrafts are affected by the interference. The localization estimated by them is integrated on-ground, achieving a more accurate localization of the source. Then the ground infrastructure is responsible to alert the corresponding entities (ATC, National RF Spectrum Agency…).



  • Detection & Enhanced Collaborative Localization (D&eCL)

The localization of the source is significantly improved thanks to using raw measurements from multiple aircrafts simultaneously affected by the interference. In this mode of operation the aircrafts require additional communications capabilities (higher data rate) to transmit to the ground the raw data. In addition, the ground infrastructure processes raw data from the aircrafts, and not only the position estimated on-board.





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